ONLINE CONFERENCE KEYNOTE ADDRESS ABSTRACT
"VOLUNTARISTIC ONLINE EDUCATION AND THE FUTURE WITH JAPAN"
A Keynote Address for the Third Annual Teaching in the Community Colleges Online Conference (7 April 1998)
by Steve McCarty
This presentation is a call for action as well as interaction. By what academic standards and ethics can online teaching be developed into a professional discipline? Does it need a pan-disciplinary guild? Is a new world association for online education needed? Or can there be a council of existing organizations concerned with the Internet and education to regulate online educational resources and programs? For online teaching to be professionalized, practitioners must be duly rewarded, and the vast amount of voluntaristic research necessary to reconstitute Academia in cyberspace must be recognized by academic institutions. A global and multicultural perspective is also needed for a new century that should be a co-creation of Westerners and non-Westerners. Japan gives early evidence of how similar technology is appropriated in a different culture. Original sources are translated, including government plans to connect all schools to the Internet by the year 2000. New explanations for Japan's enigmatic history are proffered. Finally, online projects of pioneer Japanese teachers at all educational levels are touched upon, since they will be among the key links to Japan as online education goes global.
Draft CONSTITUTION of the WORLD ASSOCIATION for ONLINE EDUCATION
mid-1998; later superseded by WAOE Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws
Article I. Name and Nature of the Organization
Section 1. The name of this organization is the World Association for Online Education, hereinafter referred to as WAOE.
Section 2. WAOE is a not-for-profit organization of online educators and those concerned with developing online education in the broadest sense into a professional discipline.
Article II. Purposes
Section 1. WAOE is constituted as a professional association dedicated to advancing the development, implementation, evaluation and administration of online education, its technical and institutional support for practitioners, its dissemination as a discipline, its related technologies, needed skills and perspectives. For by this professionalization, online education can merit recognition as equally valid as pre-WWW approaches to sharing reliable knowledge, conducting specialized training, and certifying educational attainment.
Section 2. Reflecting the global potential of Internet technologies, WAOE fills the need for an organization of worldwide educators, one that is unencumbered by geography, physical travel, paper publications and other material means of production that must be subsidized by members. As world civilizations are becoming digitized, the WAOE organization itself can function entirely with digital technologies. As a global organization, WAOE upholds online education towards multilingualism and multiculturalism, preservation of human rights to diversity, mutual respect despite differences, and world reconciliation through intercultural communication among global citizens.
Section 3. WAOE aims to organize online educators globally in all fields of learning, to apply time-honored academic standards and ethics to new educational media, while serving the voluntaristic and professional needs of practitioners. WAOE thus aims to be as inclusive as possible in scope and in serving the aspirations of members. Inclusiveness therefore involves a global perspective with intercultural sensitivity, inclusive and equitable access to online education and to WAOE, both voluntaristic and professional activities, pan-disciplinary subject areas and issues, at all levels and in all types of true education. In all of these areas and more, WAOE serves the need for online education to become a professional discipline based on sound pedagogical principles and humanistic ethics.
Article III. Goals and Objectives
Section 1. WAOE promotes scholarly activities to systematically apply educational theories and research to online education, providing online communication forums, an electronic journal and other online publications.
Section 2. WAOE promotes the deserved enhancement of the professional status of online educators, technology specialists, and administrators implementing online education responsibly in terms of pedagogical principles and humanistic considerations.
Section 3. WAOE organizes assistance to practitioners in the conceptualization, planning, construction, administration, and evaluation of online instruction, as well as in the selection and use of academically reliable online resources in face-to-face courses.
Section 4. WAOE organizes ongoing asynchronous and synchronous communication channels by which members exchange ideas and engage in scholarly discussion of issues related to online education and its professionalization.
Section 5. WAOE develops World-Wide Web educational resources in various fields based at servers in various countries of the world. WAOE Websites provide information on sources of reliable knowledge or discussions in various fields of learning, with annotations and links to sites approved for research, and to educational programs partly or wholly online, reviewed for pedagogical effectiveness.
Section 6. WAOE organizes expertise on online educational issues, to guide the development of standards for online education, which in turn provide criteria for the evaluation, certification and accreditation of online learning programs. While basically being supportive of beginning practitioners and those with little choice but to offer elements of courses online, to defend the integrity of the online educational profession, WAOE attempts to rectify misinformation about the Internet and education, to condemn unsubstantiated claims and practices judged by relevant WAOE committees to constitute the misuse of educational technology for purposes ulterior to time-honored educational standards.
Section 7. WAOE provides channels for educators in similar fields or for interdisciplinary projects, whether the educators or students are in proximity or geographically distant, to join in collaborative and cooperative development and delivery of online courses and resources.
Article IV. Membership Principles
Section 1. WAOE consists of voting individuals and non-voting affiliates, so long as they fulfil obligations in proportion to their membership privileges. Those determined by transparent WAOE decision-making processes outlined in this document to be currently fulfilling their conditions of membership in good standing are hereinafter referred to as members.
Section 2. Membership in this not-for-profit, international association is open to educators, trainers, researchers and other individuals concerned with online education, as well as to consortia, organizations, and educational institutions supporting the purposes, goals and objectives of WAOE. As these include equitability of access globally, the organization actively seeks to provide the benefits of WAOE to members in non-Western countries or where access to online education could be helpful but is limited or restricted. To help rectify inequalities in the global Internet infrastructure, varying membership categories reflect a degree of voluntarism.
Section 3. Memberships of individual and affiliate members are subject to periodic review, particularly where the pledge of volunteer service is accepted by WAOE sub-groups in lieu of membership dues. Membership prerequisites, conditions, terms, processing and review procedures, exceptions and removals not specified in the WAOE Bylaws are to be policies established by the decision-making processes of the whole organization.
Article V. Officers and Sub-Groups of WAOE
Section 1. Elected Officers are decided by elections open to all voting members of WAOE. The Elected Officers representing WAOE and accountable to the organization are a) the President, b) the Vice-President, c) the Treasurer, d) the Membership Chair, and e) the Executive Secretary.
Section 2. Members may join one or both of two types of sub-groups, both of which organize members around tasks, for communications and decision-making. The two are Organizational Committees and Content-Area Workgroups. Except for Elected Officers c) to e), Chairs of Organizational Committees and Representatives of Content-Area Workgroups are elected by their own members.
Section 3. The Elected Officers, Chairs of Organizational Committees and Representatives of Content-Area Workgroups form the Coordinating Ring which is the legislature of WAOE.
Section 4. Appointed Officers are individuals who agree to an invitation by a designee of the Coordinating Ring to provide needed advice or technical support, and join a sub-group of WAOE where their expertise is most needed.
Section 5. The Treasurer, Membership Chair and Executive Secretary work through their respective committees, in consultation with the President and the Coordinating Ring. The Vice-President oversees the Content-Area Workgroups, serving or representing WAOE where needed, as agreed by the President or the Coordinating Ring as a whole. The President oversees the Organizational Committees and presides over the parliamentary processes of the Coordinating Ring, while publicizing and representing WAOE to the world. The Elected Officers are ex-officio non-voting members of all WAOE sub-groups. An elected officer may designate a proxy for the duration of a certain event such as the annual in-person business meeting in the jurisdiction of WAOE's incorporation.
Section 6. Content-Area Workgroups are each called Online Course and Resource Evaluation Workgroups, abbreviated as Online CREWs or O-CREWs. They aim to cover most areas of learning online, and to bring together educators of related interests, with a content-area scope suitable for stability in the long run. O-CREWs may form autonomously, but at least five WAOE members of the Workgroup must vote for its Representative to be added to the Coordinating Ring.
WAOE FOUNDING PROPOSITIONS (adopted August 1998)
by David Wyatt in Australia and Steve McCarty in Japan
PROPOSITION 1: I AGREE THAT OFFICIAL MEETINGS OF THE MEMBERS OF THE WORLD ASSOCIATION FOR ONLINE EDUCATION (HEREINAFTER REFERRED TO AS WAOE) SHALL BE CONDUCTED BY ELECTRONIC MEANS, WHETHER SYNCHRONOUS OR ASYNCHRONOUS, EXCEPT THE ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING OR AS MANDATED BY THE JURISDICTION OF WAOE'S INCORPORATION.
PROPOSITION 2: I AGREE THAT, FOR THE PURPOSES OF DETERMINING THE QUORUM AT A WAOE MEETING OR COUNTING VOTES ON A RESOLUTION PUT TO A MEETING, MEMBERS WHO REGISTER TO PARTICIPATE BY E-MAIL IN THE PROCEEDINGS AND WHO RESPOND WITHIN A DESIGNATED PERIOD OF TIME NOT MORE THAN ONE CALENDAR WEEK FROM THE DATE OF THE MEETING TO A ROLL-CALL OR A CALL FOR VOTES SHALL BE DEEMED TO BE PRESENT AT THE MEETING.
PROPOSITION 3: I AGREE THAT, WITHOUT PREJUDICE TO WAOE BYLAWS AND PROCEDURES YET TO BE DETERMINED, THESE INITIATING PROPOSITIONS SHALL BE ADOPTED BY A SIMPLE MAJORITY OF THE WAOE CHARTER MEMBERS WHO VOTE ON EACH OF THEM.
PROPOSITION 4: I AGREE THAT WAOE SHALL BE A NOT-FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATION INCORPORATED IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ACCORDING TO THE LAWS OF THAT STATE, AND THAT THE ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION POSTED AT THE URL <http://www.csus.edu/indiv/s/seehaferj/waoe/particles.htm> SHALL BE OUR INCORPORATION DOCUMENT.
PROPOSITION 5: I ENDORSE, WITH THANKS, THE APPOINTMENT OF JENNA SEEHAFER AS AGENT FOR THE INCORPORATION OF WAOE IN CALIFORNIA, SUCH ROLE TO CONTINUE UNTIL SAID INCORPORATION IS ACHIEVED.
PROPOSITION 6: I AGREE THAT, AS A MINIMUM CONDITION OF MEMBERSHIP AND WITHOUT PREJUDICE TO RULES OF MEMBERSHIP AND SUBSCRIPTION YET TO BE ADOPTED, ALL CHARTER MEMBERS OF WAOE SHALL BE CURRENTLY SUBSCRIBED TO WAOE-VIEWS, THE ASSOCIATION'S OFFICIAL E-MAIL DISCUSSION LIST.
PROPOSITION 7: I AGREE THAT VOTING ON THESE PROPOSITIONS AND ELECTIONS OF WAOE CHARTER OFFICERS--WHO CONCOMITANTLY SERVE AS DIRECTORS OF WAOE AS A NOT-FOR-PROFIT CORPORATION--SHALL BE ANNOUNCED AND SUPERVISED BY AN APPOINTED PARLIAMENTARIAN. THIS IS WITH A VIEW TO DEVELOPING A WAOE ONLINE PARLIAMENTARY PROCEDURES COMMITTEE WITH AN IMPARTIAL ROLE IN ELECTIONS AND A JUDICIARY FUNCTION IN WAOE.
PROPOSITION 8: I AGREE TO THE APPOINTMENT OF MICHAEL D. WARNER AS ACTING ONLINE PARLIAMENTARIAN FOR THE INITIAL BALLOTING FOR REVISED PROPOSITIONS AND ELECTION OF WAOE'S OFFICERS/DIRECTORS, SUBJECT TO DUE PROCESS ONCE THE BOARD IS SEATED AND APPOINTMENTS CAN BE OFFICIALLY MADE.
PROPOSITION 9: I AGREE THAT PARLIAMENTARY PROCEDURES WITHOUT RULE OR PRECEDENT IN WAOE DRAW APPROPRIATELY--FOR AN EDUCATORS' ORGANIZATION--FROM THE LEGAL SYSTEMS WHERE WAOE OFFICIALLY OPERATES, OR BY EXTENSION FROM PARLIAMENTARY PROCEDURES CONSIDERED STANDARD, SUCH AS BY APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES OF "ROBERT'S RULES OF ORDER" TO CYBERSPACE. IN CASE OF CONTESTED EXECUTIVE DECISIONS OR OUTCOMES OF VOTING, I AGREE TO ACCEPT THE DECISIONS ARBITRATED BY THE WAOE ONLINE PARLIAMENTARY PROCEDURES COMMITTEE AS FINAL AND OFFICIAL FOR WAOE.
PROPOSITION 10: I AGREE THAT WAOE'S ELECTED OFFICERS/DIRECTORS SHALL BE THE PRESIDENT, VICE-PRESIDENT, TREASURER, MEMBERSHIP CHAIR AND EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. FOR EACH OFFICE, THE CANDIDATE WITH THE LARGEST NUMBER OF VOTES SHALL BE DECLARED THE WINNER. FOR UNCONTESTED OFFICES THE WINNERS MAY BE DECLARED AS SOON AS THEIR VALID VOTES SURPASS A QUORUM OF ONE-THIRD OF THE ELIGIBLE VOTERS SUBSCRIBED TO WAOE-VIEWS. DIRECTORS OF WAOE AS A NON-PROFIT CORPORATION SHALL BE ELECTED NOTWITHSTANDING FURTHER DEFINITION OF THEIR ROLES AS WAOE OFFICERS IN THE FORTHCOMING BYLAWS AND OTHER LEGISLATION.
PROPOSITION 11: I AGREE THAT FUTURE TERMS OF WAOE'S ELECTED OFFICERS/DIRECTORS SHALL GENERALLY BE STAGGERED TWO-YEAR TERMS, ENDING ON JUNE 30th AND BEGINNING ON JULY 1st. TO THIS END, THE CHARTER WAOE PRESIDENT AND TREASURER SHALL SERVE FROM THE TIME OF THE ANNOUNCEMENT OF ELECTION RESULTS BY A WAOE ONLINE PARLIAMENTARIAN UNTIL JUNE 30, , WHEREAS THE CHARTER WAOE VICE-PRESIDENT, MEMBERSHIP CHAIR AND EXECUTIVE SECRETARY SHALL SERVE UNTIL JUNE 30, . [parliamentary clarification based on California state laws]
PROPOSITION 12: I AGREE THAT VOTING ON THESE PROPOSITIONS AND ON WAOE'S CHARTER OFFICERS SHALL PROCEED AS PER THE TIMELINE INDICATED BY MICHAEL D. WARNER ON 5 AUGUST 1998 (cf. URL <http://www.findmail.com/list/waoe-views/97.html> and related WAOE-VIEWS messages), ALLOWING TIME FOR DISCUSSION, AMENDMENTS, SECONDING AND CONFIRMATION OF ELIGIBLE VOTERS AS WELL AS OF THE CANDIDACY FOR ELECTED OFFICES BY THOSE NOMINATED. DURING VOTING PERIODS POLITICAL ACTIVITY SHALL NOT GO BEYOND SHOWING ELIGIBLE MEMBERS OF WAOE HOW TO VOTE ELECTRONICALLY OR ENCOURAGING MEMBERS TO VIEW RELEVANT DOCUMENTS AND THEN VOTE. I AGREE THAT THE PROPOSITIONS WHICH PASS AND THE OUTCOME OF THE VOTING ON OFFICERS/DIRECTORS WILL BE EFFECTIVE WITH THE ANNOUNCEMENT OF RESULTS BY THE ACTING ONLINE PARLIAMENTARY PROCEDURES COMMITTEE.